Modelling passenger demand, energy consumption and pollution emissions in thetransport sector

by Nick Johnstone

Publisher: Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge in Cambridge

Written in English
Published: Pages: 22 Downloads: 136
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  • Transportation -- Great Britain -- Environmental aspects -- Econometric models.,
  • Transportation -- Great Britain -- Passenger traffic -- Econometric models.,
  • Energy consumption -- Great Britain -- Forecasting.

Edition Notes

Bibliography: p. 18-19.

StatementNick Johnstone.
SeriesDAE working papers -- no. 9527, E-3 modelling paper -- no. 11
ContributionsUniversity of Cambridge. Department of Applied Economics.
The Physical Object
Pagination22 p. ;
Number of Pages22
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL18907650M

  The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic relationship that exists between energy consumption, environmental pollution and per capita economic growth in Tanzania. The energy consumption is represented by electricity usage in kilowatt hours (kWh) per capita, while environmental pollution is represented by carbon emission per metric tons and economic growth by Cited by: The sector was the second largest consumer of commercial energy after the industry sector that consumed %( MTOE) of energy. The transport sector had the largest share (35%) in petroleum consumption. Source: TERI Energy Data Directory and Year Book(TEDDY,). Fuel consumption and emission rates per passenger-mile depend on load factors: A bus with 50 passengers uses about one-tenth the energy per passenger-mile as an average automobile, but in the U.S., energy consumption per passenger-mile is little .   A disturbing UN report on the risks we face if global warming exceeds °C has focused attention on the drastic environmental action needed to avoid the worst, with the transport sector among those singled out for urgent measures.. The transport sector is the fastest growing contributor to climate emissions and particles from cars and other vehicles - including black carbon and nitrogen.

  This sector also accounts for a substantial amount of air pollution in cities and contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to analyze factors influencing the pattern and emission level of energy consumption in the transportation sector of Malaysia and extrapolates the total energy demand and vehicular by:   A computer model has been developed to assess the energy consumption and the CO 2-emissions from the global transport sector as a function of the transport demand, the vehicle and propulsion technologies, the driving behavior and the fuels s are the energy consumption and the CO 2-emissions of single vehicles and of vehicle fleets for all modes of by: 2.   Historically, improvements in the efficiency with which energy was used have enabled reduced energy consumption in the transportation sector. Fuel economies of passenger cars and light trucks have closely tracked the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards since they took effect in (figure ).   The transport model was coupled with a global economic model and climate model to capture the interactions and tradeoffs between the transport sector, energy, emissions, macroeconomy, and climate change (figure 1). The frameworks of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Author: Runsen Zhang, Shinichiro Fujimori.

Reduce Oil Consumption and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions from the U.S. Transportation Sector KElly SimS GAllAGhER GUSTAvO COllAnTES Discussion Paper June Energy Technology Innovation Policy A joint project of the Science, Technology and Public Policy Program and the Environment and natural Resources Program. Energy use, air pollution, and environmental policy in Krakow: can economic incentives really work? (Inglês) Resumo. This paper, "Energy use, air pollution, and environmental policy in Krakow," examines the impact of alternative policy instruments on certain aspects of local air pollution in the Krakow region of Poland, in terms of sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions Cited by: 6. Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of. 2. % of all licensed vehicles in the UK in were ultra-low emissions vehicles Road transport is an important source of both greenhouse gases and air pollutants, being responsible for significant contributions to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (PM)10 and PM

Modelling passenger demand, energy consumption and pollution emissions in thetransport sector by Nick Johnstone Download PDF EPUB FB2

Simulation of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Passenger Cars and Urban Buses in Real-World Driving Cycles Reducing environmental pollution by the transport sector has been influenced according to the increasingly restrictions imposed by regulatory : Vinícius Rückert Roso, Mario Eduardo Santos Martins.

It provides annual projections up tois technology rich with endogenous modelling of more than 1, vehicle technologies, and covers a wide range of output indicators, including travel demand, vehicle ownership and use, energy demand, life cycle emissions of 26 pollutants, environmental impacts, government tax revenues, and external costs.

unless transport emissions can be strongly decoupled from GDP growth (high confidence). The transport sector produced GtCO 2 eq of direct GHG emissions (including non-CO 2 gases) in and hence was responsible for approximately 23% of total energy-related CO 2 emissions (GtCO 2) [].

A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model.

The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle).Cited by: 2 is the most significant and the transport sector accounts for around 25% of CO 2 emissions, although this varies by scale and location, with energy supply, business and the residential sector making up the rest (DECC, ; International Energy Agency, ).

In order to combat rising CO 2 emissions, it is essential to have a clear understanding of. In the Energy Outlook, demand for transport services grows strongly, but gains in energy efficiency limit increases in energy used Site traffic information and cookies We use cookies to collect and analyse information on our site's performance and to enable the site to function.

Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) is a Microsoft Access database application providing emission factors, i.e. the specific emissions in g/km, for all current road vehicle categories (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, buses, and motorcycles).Emission factors are provided for all regulated and the most important non-regulated air pollutants as well as Operating system: Windows.

The UK National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) is the standard reference for air emissions for the UK and provides annual estimates of emission for a wide range of important pollutants including air quality pollutants, greenhouse gases, regional pollutants leading to acid deposition and photochemical pollution, persistent organic pollutants and other toxic pollutants such as heavy.

Transport accounts for around a third of all final energy consumption in the EEA member countries and for more than a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions. It is also responsible for a large share of urban air pollution as well as noise nuisance. Furthermore, transport has a serious impact on the landscape because it divides natural areas into small patches with serious consequences for animals.

The IEA helps further this transition by analysing technologies and transport systems that can be developed and adopted by countries to reduce dependence on oil and emissions of greenhouse gases.

This work also enables reductions in air pollution, road fatalities and congestion, while improving passenger and freight transport access. emissions from every make and model of vehicle separately.

The model does not cover emissions from the manufacture or disposal of the vehicle, nor does it cover non-exhaust emissions. The reasons for this are outlined in this report. 7 Although the scope and nature of the Transport Energy Model make it File Size: 1MB. Vehicle fuel consumption and emission modelling Watson and Milkins () used average speed to develo p a fuel consumption model.

The model incorporates the changes in the positive kinetic. Annual energy consumption in transport in the EEA grew by 38 % between and (32 % in EU). However, the economic recession caused a decline in transport demand, leading to a 3 % decrease in the related energy demand in the last decade.

The shipping sector saw the greatest decline of 10 % in energy consumption between and alone, with a total. Fuel Consumption Monitoring for Travel Demand Modeling. importance of energy and its consumption, pollution caused by fuel combustion, effect of energy prices and other related parameters can.

Final energy demand is nearly halved in the transport sector by in the combined LS EV scenario compared to the reference case (REF) (Fig. Lifestyle change on its own (i.e. the LS scenario) was much less effective, reducing transport energy demand by only 14% by and by 31% by compared to the reference case (REF).Cited by: sector, which makes the road favored at the expense of rail.

The analysis of transport related air emissions has shown that the contribution of this sector to the total of air emissions is small compared to OECD average. The reason for this is the high emission intensity of energy. In addition to differences in overall energy consumption, the analysis revealed large differences in estimates of the split of energy between passenger and freight transport.

The share of energy consumption by passenger vehicles in total energy demand among the models that provided these data is in the range of 38–68% in Cited by: 9.

Road transport sector modelling: Supplementary report 5 Figure Engine type in road kilometres travelled, Clean Energy Future scenario Figure shows the greenhouse gas emissions for the Clean Energy Future scenario compared to the Medium Global Action scenario from Road Transport Sector Modelling.

The emissions. Downloadable. The transport sector has rarely seen disruptive evolutions after the diffusion of the internal combustion engine, and today the European mobility is still heavily relying on oil derivates and on private cars. However, there is a significant push in cities towards more sustainable mobility paradigms, and digital technologies are playing a major role in unleashing possible Cited by: 1.

The current trend of the global increase in energy consumption has presented societies with several major crises including environmental pollution and the acceleration of diminishing energy supplies.

Energy storage and pollutant reduction in the city play a crucial role in the process of conserving the existing energy. In addition, the transportation sector should be emphasized due to its Author: Fatemeh Akbari, Alireza Mahpour, Mohammad Reza Ahadi. Transportation sector energy consumption.

Overview. In the. International Energy Outlook (IEO) Reference case, transportation sector delivered energy consumption increases at an annual average rate of %, from quadrillion British thermal. Nearly the entire energy consumption of the transport sector consists of fossil fuels.

In fact, according to the European Environment Agency, the EU is 98 % dependent on them. Fossil fuel combustion produces carbon dioxide (CO 2) and other emissions resulting from human activity, many of them harmful to human health.

The quantities and profile of these emissions depend on the quantity and quality of fuel. Air quality simulations for vehicle and power sector emissions: The consultant will utilize an appropriate air quality model to evaluate the effects of each vehicle and power sector emissions scenario on ambient concentrations of PM and ozone in India.

The air quality modeling should be conducted at a resolution of °x° or finer. The study of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission of vehicles in a highway in Spain has been accomplished by a The rates of fuel consumption in “top-down” models depend usually on the energy demand in road transport sector.

These rates also depend on various factors including occupancy, speed and length of the trip Cited by: Globally, rail was responsible for % of transport final energy demand, and for % of CO2 emissions from the transport sector in In comparison, road transport accounts for a % share of final energy demand, and for % of CO2 emissions from transport.

Rail accounts for a relatively larger share of transport activity demand. GHG emissions are from the transport sector, and this proportion is expected to increase substantially by The national climate policy goal (DECLG, ) is to reduce overall emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) by at least 80% of levels by Ireland also has various targets in the transport sector that it has to achieve.

MEET has compiled a comprehensive catalogue of methods, emissions factors and functions, for use in estimating pollutant emissions and energy consumption from transport. It covers all current vehicle technologies for all different types or classes of road vehicles, as well as rail, shipping and air transport.

Transport demand and CO2 emissions to ITF Transport Outlook The ITF Transport Outlook provides an overview of recent trends and near-term prospects for the transport sector at a global level, as well as long-term prospects for transport demand tofor freight (maritime, air and surface), passenger transport (car, rail and air.

Using TREMOVE, the partial equilibrium model on the transport sector, which was developed in the context of the European Auto-Oil II Programme, this paper simulates what could happen to transport costs, transport demand and transport emissions if the low oil price ($10/barrel) or the high oil price ($30/barrel) were maintained in the long run.

ItFile Size: KB. To ensure that the ICCT Global Transportation Energy and Climate Roadmap report is emissions in the past two decades.3 The transportation sector—including passenger vehicles, commercial trucks, rail, marine, and aviation—is expected to continue to • What is the potential to reduce further energy consumption and GHG emissions.

Reducing Your Transportation Footprint Transportation is now the largest source of carbon emissions in the United States. In many U.S. cities and towns, the personal automobile is the single greatest polluter because emissions from millions of vehicles on the road add up.The energy efficiency in transport is the useful travelled distance, of passengers, goods or any type of load; divided by the total energy put into the transport propulsion means.

The energy input might be rendered in several different types depending on the type of propulsion, and normally such energy is presented in liquid fuels, electrical energy or food energy.Learn how emissions reductions, advancements in fuels and fuel economy, and working with industry to find solutions to air pollution problems benefit human and environmental health, create consumer savings and are cost effective.